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Medusa Ransomware

74
Global rank
63 infographic chevron month
Month rank
61 infographic chevron week
Week rank
58
IOCs

Medusa is a ransomware malware family targeting businesses and institutions. Medusa encrypts crucial data, rendering it inaccessible, and attempts to pressure users to pay to regain control of their information. The group behind this malicious software hosts a TOR website where it shares the list of the organizations whose infrastructure has been compromised. This malware utilizes various tactics, including exploiting vulnerabilities and employs a unique file extension (".MEDUSA") to mark encrypted files.

Ransomware
Type
Unknown
Origin
1 June, 2021
First seen
15 April, 2024
Last seen

How to analyze Medusa Ransomware with ANY.RUN

Type
Unknown
Origin
1 June, 2021
First seen
15 April, 2024
Last seen

IOCs

Hashes
f86f2ce32f7051783c5cb01e5e5c6255d9956494b72a44b597025cc12a041060
6c7eda3f5e9bbc685b0eefde2a51f0ccb06ad33805e617876a5124410cac9945
2a5a7c51c843b81d6fba535314fbc20bcc84b36045b25f4116ab4f1b42ba4d77
ead965866e72def7759c08492f5ddc40fd5ec1c3c172361906aed09c936f582a
eeec9b3cf89dee5c3ca0bdacf01f5689f6edbe2a7e9372db73ddd8d900be7a24
dbac4f2fffcb4e09aad772895647e8f161b1ac713592fe47c5e8207c85722f13
1e2335fef46f7320069623fff6702acb41c2877aff5fec83d94a561af37c3c7a
d90573cdf776f60a91dc57e8c77dd61adbdaaf205de29faf26afd138c520f487
a9ce91a9a1bcbe2cd2ec023cdf2f302c8ac4f6bfe04e83a9c4edd1c47b53618e
8b9bdc5cf5534d377a6201d1803a5aa0915b93c9df524307118fd61f361bdba2
ed139beb506a17843c6f4b631afdf5a41ec93121da66d142b412333e628b9db8
a63671c775fef720663e0ed7594586f3f20776e70776dd2e3ef84680b8497748
a5fdfacc22914d12eec28fb085f026401db10ae51d4e549dfec6160501be0dcf
ef1318ede7ab1a8e851f0e052630615daa5ad45002536b295763466d234b4e74
b477676fa9bc4972b2448e27a2b4074edc392227da5d259e87faf2eb1c8e19c7
fbf6c8f0857d888385f6bc0d46523ebcc1634e06d0e96411fc43a8ae4213d1f3
9c7008f98f63699807b6ce8f62d438fe15c3f2df6f7bac26b5f20a018559c139
cb13fc6c14f366e1ba76e232ef95295854c8cbd269720ff2422682e513227212
0724c907724a3a28971e249c8bb7653787799c0cef398df78111c115cbd789fc
4cf090e3ae23ea6cbe76df697bf7143bcc95acfc1521fbe5af77cb5033fae87a
Domains
asfsafsakjfkjsa.xyz
umxkexskgtctvws.cn
sock.asfsafsakjfkjsa.xyz
ueihtnoujbedjiu.ru
fpuacswjcgpcxoe.ru
Last Seen at

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What is malware: Medusa Ransomware?

Medusa Ransomware is a type of malicious software employed by cybercriminals for extortion purposes. This tool is used in offensive campaigns that involve the encryption of critical data belonging to organizations, followed by a ransom demand for its decryption.

Medusa Ransomware first emerged in June 2021 and has since targeted various industries, including the education sector. In 2023 alone, it is reported to have affected over 70 organizations globally, operating under the Ransomware-as-a-Service (RaaS) business model.

The cybercriminals behind Medusa Ransomware maintain a dedicated TOR website where they publish information about their victims, accompanied by a countdown clock indicating the time left before the data is released.

To prevent data leaks, victims are typically presented with three options. They can extend the time limit, pay a fee to have their stolen data deleted, or opt to download the compromised data, essentially buying back their own information.

One notable incident involving Medusa Ransomware took place in 2023. The group successfully infiltrated Toyota's European division, demanding a substantial ransom of $8 million. When negotiations broke down, the attackers proceeded to release the stolen data on their dark web portal.

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Medusa ransomware malicious software technical details

One of the primary signs of a Medusa ransomware attack is the addition of the ".MEDUSA" extension to encrypted files. However, this malware has been known to use various other extensions such as .1btc, .mylock, and .key1.

The variety of file extensions linked to Medusa ransomware indicates the existence of several versions. The ransom notes can appear in either TXT or HTML format (in newer versions). The note contains a unique 32-character hash value used for communication with the attackers.

For the encryption process, Medusa utilizes the strong AES256 algorithm, making decryption without the proper key extremely challenging. Additionally, the key used for encryption is itself encrypted using an RSA public key, further securing the encrypted data.

Medusa often infiltrates systems by exploiting existing vulnerabilities. In the past, it has targeted weaknesses such as CVE-2022-2294 and CVE-2022-21999 to deliver its payload.

To maintain persistence on the infected system, Medusa copies an executable file, usually named "svhost.exe" or "svhostt.exe", to a specific directory within the user's profile. This executable is then scheduled to run at regular intervals, ensuring the continued operation of the ransomware.

Medusa targets and terminates processes associated with security software. By doing so, it aims to disable potential detection and data recovery mechanisms.

Another strategy employed by Medusa is the deletion of Volume Shadow Copies, a Windows feature that creates backups of files at specific points in time. By eliminating these copies, Medusa removes a potential recovery method for victims.

Medusa Ransomware execution process

Medusa Ransomware can be analyzed in the ANY.RUN sandbox. To do this, we can upload its sample to the service.

Medusa ransomware typically infiltrates a system through phishing emails or malicious downloads, exploiting vulnerabilities in outdated software or weak security measures. Once executed, it stealthily encrypts files using strong encryption algorithms, rendering them inaccessible to the user. Medusa then displays a ransom note, usually demanding payment in cryptocurrency, in exchange for a decryption key. The ransom note often includes instructions on how to make the payment and how to contact the attackers. Meanwhile, Medusa may also attempt to spread laterally across the network, infecting other connected devices. Finally, the attackers await payment confirmation before providing the decryption key, although there's no guarantee they will uphold their end of the bargain. As a common activity for ransomware, Medusa halts system services and deletes shadow volumes.

Medusa ransom note shown in ANY.RUN Medusa ransom note demonstrated in ANY.RUN

Medusa Ransomware malware distribution methods

Similar to other malware, such as AsyncRAT and Remcos, phishing is one of the primary distribution methods employed by Medusa ransomware operators. Attackers send deceptive emails to potential victims, often disguising themselves as legitimate organizations or individuals. These emails typically contain malicious attachments or links, which, when clicked or downloaded, initiate the ransomware installation process.

Conclusion

Medusa ransomware's ability to compromise sensitive data poses a threat to businesses and individuals. The consequences of a successful attack can be severe, ranging from financial losses due to ransom demands to reputational damage caused by leaked information. Prioritizing preventive measures, such as learning about the malware’s TTPs and collecting its indicators of compromise (IOCs) can prove invaluable for any organization’s security posture. ANY.RUN is an online sandbox that enables users to do just that.

This interactive sandbox environment allows users to safely explore potential malware and quickly receive detailed technical reports. By leveraging this service, users can collect important information for making decisions needed for safeguarding their systems from harm.

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