Ursnif

Ursnif is a banking Trojan that usually infects corporate victims. It is based on an old malware but was substantially updated over the years and became quite powerful. Today Ursnif is one of the most widely spread banking Trojans in the world.

Type
Trojan
Origin
Unknown
First seen
1 January, 2014
Last seen
21 May, 2022
Also known as
Gozi
Dreambot
ISFB
Global rank
10
Week rank
38
Month rank
28
IOCs
37844

What is Ursnif malware?

Ursnif, also known as Gozi, is one of the most widely spread banking trojans – it is aimed at stealing banking credentials and usually targets corporate victims. The malware was developed based on the leaked source code of a fairly old Gozi-ISFB trojan.

The trojan was registered for the first time in 2014 when the Gozi-ISFB code got leaked. Since then, Ursnif has been evolving and becoming more powerful, which lead it to become one of the top used banking trojans today.

General description of Ursnif trojan

Ursnif Trojan is a dangerous malware that can collect the system activity of the victims, record keystrokes, and keep track of network traffic and browser activity. The malware stores the data in an archive before sending it to the C2.

The malware uses malicious Microsoft Office documents to get into the users’ machine and requires macros to be activated. Once opened, the document will prompt the user to enable macros. If the user plays along with the instruction, the malware drops a VB script into the temp directory of the current user, upon which it is automatically decoded, and the malicious payload is downloaded.

According to the analysis, some versions of Ursnif contain a macro that is programmed to check the country using the Application. International MS Office property. If the result does not correspond to a list of pre-selected countries, the malware terminates its execution.

Interestingly, the malware terminates execution if it detects that it’s being launched on a virtual machine. Hackers implement this precaution technique in order to complicate the analysis process and, hopefully, prevent the effective development of countermeasures.

Ursnif malware analysis

A video is available at ANY.RUN malware analysis service allows us to see a simulation of the malware execution in a lot of detail. YOu can also investigate other malware like Hawkeye or Raccoon.

ursnif gozi dreambot execution graph Figure 1: A visual process graph generated by ANY.RUN shows the lifecycle of Urnsnif

How to avoid infection by Ursnif?

The best way to stay safe from Ursnif is to keep the macros turned off and not turn them on if prompted by a Microsoft Office file downloaded from an untrustworthy source, such as an email from the unknown sender. In addition, following good techniques of staying safe online such as not downloading files from suspicious emails, is another great way to avoid infection.

Ursnif execution process

In the case of our simulation, the execution of the malware starts when the user opens a Word or Excel file and enables the macro. Ursnif uses the browser's COM object to connect to its C2 server and receive additional data.

Based on the analysis, Ursnif trojan uses exploits to start legitimate software like Outlook, which in turn launches cmd.exe only to spawn a PowerShell script. If a strike is directed at select countries, the malware checks where the victim is from during this stage. Then, the PowerShell script downloads and executes the final payload, which is Ursnif itself. Lastly, the loader starts malicious activities and injects its code into the explorer.exe process.

After installation, the malware will try to inject into an active explorer.exe process to establish persistence. If the injection fails, Ursnif will launch a new svchost.exe process and will inject itself instead. this technique appears to be a useful pointer for detection. After that, Ursnif will hook the APIs of common web browsers such as Chrome, Opera, Internet Explorer, and Firefox. The loader uses the browsers' COM object to communicate to its C2 server. Then, the malware will begin monitoring web activity and steal the payment information as soon as the victim visits a banking or a payment webpage. Then Ursnif sends collected data to a C2 server via the IE COM object.

Communication with C&C

In order to prevent domain name disclosure, the malware generates the domain names locally using the technique of the Domain Generation Algorithm (DGA) instead of them being hardcoded. Uniquely, the malware gathers information for domain name generation in the DGA process by taking bits of text from popular websites. If you decrypt the URL in the script, you may get the data sent to the C2 server.

The malware is also known to be able to execute commands received from the control server.

How to detect Ursnif using ANY.RUN?

Ursnif uses COM objects to execute the malware's payload, and usually, it runs multiple iexplorer.exe processes. The loader creates a COM object that is a hidden API function. Knowing this information, take a look at the process tree after a while during execution, and determine either sample is Ursnif or not. Check the script to find out if a suspicious URL corresponds to malware activity.

ursnif process tree Figure 2: Ursnif process tree

Conclusion

Based on the source code of another malware that is already almost a decade old, Ursnif is a prime example of the fact that “old” does not mean ineffective when it comes to trojans.

On the contrary, despite its age, this malware is capable of launching devastating cyber attacks and managed to become one of the most popular banking trojans in the world. In addition to its powerful trojan functionality, the loader takes active actions to prevent researchers from studying it. Thankfully, malware hunting services like ANY.RUN allows researchers to study this malware in-depth and respond with appropriate countermeasures.

IOCs

IP addresses
20.73.194.208
196.200.111.5
51.124.78.146
13.107.43.16
13.107.42.16
35.205.61.67
115.88.24.203
116.121.62.237
180.69.193.102
23.202.231.167
188.114.96.15
205.178.189.131
103.224.182.242
185.85.15.26
76.223.26.96
173.239.8.164
13.248.148.254
198.54.117.211
209.99.40.222
198.54.117.244
Hashes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swarmpush.com
www.httpdebugger.com
cloud26.xyz
zooomyapps.com
svntrk.com
ugll.org
zerit.top
bahninfo.at
cabrioxmdes.at
colgefine.at
hanfinvest.at
gerer.at
linislominyt11.at
recmaster.ru
fuyt.org
lencu.top
www.lockbitapt.uz
lockbitapt.uz
rcacademy.at
tisaur33.top

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