BLACK FRIDAY: 2-for-1 offer NOVEMBER 20 - 26 See details
8
Global rank
25 infographic chevron month
Month rank
19 infographic chevron week
Week rank
1909
IOCs

LokiBot was developed in 2015 to steal information from a variety of applications. Despite the age, this malware is still rather popular among cybercriminals.

Stealer
Type
ex-USSR territory
Origin
3 May, 2015
First seen
22 April, 2024
Last seen
Also known as
Loki
LokiPWS

How to analyze LokiBot with ANY.RUN

Type
ex-USSR territory
Origin
3 May, 2015
First seen
22 April, 2024
Last seen

IOCs

IP addresses
178.159.39.36
Hashes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http://91.92.253.228/tjmkdc/five/fre.php
http://94.156.65.182/tomthf/cvghx/five/fre.php
http://naourl.com/data/five/fre.php
http://24.199.107.111/index.php/0672554332862
http://altaskifer.sbs/PWS2/fre.php
https://altaskifer.sbs/PWS2/fre.php
http://136.244.109.75/index.php/690877741063
http://bauxx.xyz/mtk1/w2/fre.php
http://136.244.109.75/index.php/08409289280180
http://136.244.109.75/index.php/1748937
http://24.199.107.111/index.php/2028
http://24.199.107.111/index.php/927339792
http://24.199.107.111/index.php/720637
http://sempersim.su/c6/fre.php
https://sempersim.su/c6/fre.php
http://ebnsina.top/project/five/fre.php
http://spencerstuartllc.top/document/five/fre.php
http://140.82.61.49/index.php/2028
https://altaskifer.sbs/PWS/fre.php
https://sempersim.su/c16/fre.php
Last Seen at

Recent blog posts

post image
New PowerShell Script Tracer: Analyze PowerSh...
watchers 453
comments 0
post image
Dmitry Marinov: ANY.RUN’s CTO on TI Lookup, S...
watchers 275
comments 0
post image
Malware Trends Report: Q1, 2024
watchers 1830
comments 0

What is LokiBot malware?

LokiBot, also known as Loki-bot or Loki bot, is an information stealer malware that collects credentials from the most widely used web browsers, FTP, email clients, and over a hundred software tools installed on the infected system. It was developed in one of the ex-USSR countries.

The trojan was discovered for the first time on May 3rd, 2015, from a sale announcement made by the creator, and the malware is still active to this day.

General description of LokiBot

Initially created and sold by a hacker known as "lokistov" or "Carter," the first versions of LokiBot spyware used to cost up to $400. However, almost identical malware appeared on hacker forums soon after, available for as little as $80 from several sellers. As it is thought, "lokistov" himself was hacked, and the virus's source code was leaked, allowing others to use its techniques and sell remarkably similar malware.

Curiously, a researcher subsequently found out that the first version of the virus got patched by someone without accessing the source code, which gave the hacker community the ability to set a series of individual domains used to receive the retrieved data.

Even though several versions of the virus exist today, after the analysis, it was found that all of them are actually modifications of the original malware. Interestingly, the server to which LokiBot stealer sends data is unique for every particular malware sample.

In the latest versions of LokiBot, a third stage is added to the process of compromising systems, besides more encryption, a technique to escape detection. Each layer of the trojan is encrypted to attempt to hide the eventual source of code.

The malware uses the known technique of blurring images in documents to force users to enable macros. This trick infects machines quite successfully.

LokiBot malware analysis

A video displaying the simulation of the contamination process created by the ANY.RUN interactive malware hunting service provides the perfect opportunity for malware analysis to see how the contamination process unfolds on an infected machine. As shown in the simulation, LokiBot trojan needs email attachments, such as a Microsoft Office file or an archive file to be opened to enter an active phase.

process graph of lokibot stealer execution Figure 1: Process graph generated by the ANY.RUN malware hunting service

During the analysis, we found out that the malware life cycle can be broken down into the following stages:

  • Contamination. The victim downloads a malicious archive or a Microsoft Office file which eventually downloads the malware;
  • Being packed initially, the keylogger unpacks itself and begins the execution of the main payload;
  • The virus creates unique loop-functions for each application that it is targeting and saves retrieved data into a buffer;
  • Then, a registry key is modified, and the trojan is explicitly copied into a folder with a specific name unique name under the %APPDATA% folder. This allows the virus to establish persistence. MachineGuid MD5 is used for the name generation, and the name can also be used as a Mutex as well as bot-id. As the last action of this step, the virus generates a registry key that points to the file it copied before to the specific folder inside the %APPDATA% folder;
  • Then, depending on if the current user is privileged or not, the virus sets persistence either under HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE or KEY_CURRENT_USER;
  • Next, general system information is sent to the C&C server;
  • For persistence, the keylogger then applies the triple-DES encryption technique to the URL and the registry key;
  • After this, the virus starts waiting for commands from C&C, creating a new thread to detect the C&C response.

How to avoid infection by LokiBot virus?

Since LokiBot spyware requires macros to be activated to infect the system, attackers will do everything in their power to make the victim enable them. Thus keeping macros turned off is the best bet to stay protected from the trojan. Notably, extra caution should be exhibited when a document downloaded from a suspicious source or an unknown email address prompts to enable macros.

Also, having antivirus software from trusted developers and keeping it updated is an excellent way to decrease the probability of becoming the malware's victim and protecting credentials. Another good common practice is to be highly mindful when opening attachments or clicking links in emails from unidentified sources as it's a popular method of malware spreading, including FormBook and Dridex.

Distribution of LokiBot

LokiBot stealer is distributed mostly via mail-spam campaigns, prompting the user to download a malicious file that is attached. Remarkably, the three most commonly used types of files are Microsoft Office documents configured to begin the download and installation processes of the malware, archive files containing a Loki-Bot executable or ISO files, and a Loki-Bot executable.

LokiBot execution process

Interactive sandbox simulation conducted on the ANY.RUN malware hunting service allows us to take a closer look at how the execution process of LokiBot unfolds in a case when a contaminated Microsoft Office file is the infection source.

  • The simulation starts with opening a Microsoft Office file. Immediately, WINWORD.EXE is executed with enable macros.
  • Then, through the exploitation of the CVE-2017-11882 vulnerability, Microsoft Office Equation Editor proceeds to download a malicious executable file;
  • Finally, a malicious executable file runs itself and then proceeds to steal the personal data and connect to the C&C server.

process tree of a lokibot stealer execution Figure 2: Illustrates the execution processes of LokiBot as shown by ANY.RUN simulation

a text report of a lokibot analysis Figure 3: A text report created by ANY.RUN

The virus generates multiple artifacts during its execution process. Particularly, four types of files can be simultaneously stored in the secret %APPDATA% directory at any point in time. Those files can have ".exe," ".lck," ".hdb" or ".kdb." extensions, and each file type is used for a specific purpose:

  • .exe files contain an executable copy of the trojan that triggers when a user logs into an account,
  • .lck files are generated to prevent resource conflicts when either Windows Credentials or Keylogging are decrypted,
  • .hdb files are used to store the hashes of all data samples already transmitted to the C&C server
  • .kdb files are in turn used to hold information about the data that is yet to be sent to the server

Based on the analysis, the keylogger uses the following algorithm to name the files:

  1. First, LokiBot takes the value of MachineGuid from the registry branch HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE \ SOFTWARE \ Microsoft \ Cryptography . In the case of our simulation, it was set to dc5131b5-5fbc-4f85-b1ed-28d4392080ca.

lokibot mutex creation GUID registry

  1. Then, the virus uses the MD5 algorithm to calculate the hash sum of the MachineGuid, which in our case ended up being c83ba0aa282a966263dda560052b3caf.

lokibot mutex creation md5

  1. Finally, characters from the 8th to the 13th of the resulting hash amount are used as the subdirectory's name, and the characters from the 13th to the 18th are used as the name of the files.

lokibot mutex creation

LokiBot communication with C&C

To communicate with the C&C server, the patched version of the virus, which is also the most widely spread strain, sends a "ckav.ru" string. Interestingly, the sent data is also is a substring of "fuckav.ru."

How to detect LokiBot malware using ANY.RUN?

Among other things, you can detect whether it is LokiBot in front of you or not by looking inside sending packets - there's always text "ckav.ru" inside them. Just click on the sent packet in the "HTTP REQUESTS" tab and take a look inside a packet.

lokibot network stream Figure 4: Lokibot network stream

Conclusion

Lastly, since the first version of the malware was leaked and cloned, eventually becoming available for a significantly lower price than the original, LokiBot spyware became a widely spread malware that continues to appear in several mail-spam campaigns. In fact, the virus has become so popular that its set-up explanation videos on stealing credentials are publically available on YouTube.

Fortunately, modern malware hunting tools like ANY.RUN provides the ability to examine the malware behavior in detail and establish solid protection against the hazard.

HAVE A LOOK AT

Adwind screenshot
Adwind
adwind trojan
Adwind RAT, sometimes also called Unrecom, Sockrat, Frutas, jRat, and JSocket, is a Malware As A Service Remote Access Trojan that attackers can use to collect information from infected machines. It was one of the most popular RATs in the market in 2015.
Read More
Agent Tesla screenshot
Agent Tesla
agenttesla trojan rat stealer
Agent Tesla is spyware that collects information about the actions of its victims by recording keystrokes and user interactions. It is falsely marketed as a legitimate software on the dedicated website where this malware is sold.
Read More
Amadey screenshot
Amadey
amadey
Amadey is a formidable Windows infostealer threat, characterized by its persistence mechanisms, modular design, and ability to execute various malicious tasks.
Read More
Arkei screenshot
Arkei
arkei stealer
Arkei is a stealer type malware capable of collecting passwords, autosaved forms, cryptocurrency wallet credentials, and files.
Read More
AsyncRAT screenshot
AsyncRAT
asyncrat
AsyncRAT is a RAT that can monitor and remotely control infected systems. This malware was introduced on Github as a legitimate open-source remote administration software, but hackers use it for its many powerful malicious functions.
Read More
WarZone screenshot
WarZone
warzone avemaria stealer trojan rat
WarZone RAT is a remote access trojan, which is written in C++ and offered as a malware-as-a-service. It packs a wide range of capabilities, from stealing victims’ files and passwords to capturing desktop activities. WarZone RAT is primarily distributed via phishing emails and receives regular updates from its C2.
Read More

Our website uses cookies. By visiting the pages of the site, you agree to our Privacy Policy