Lokibot

Lokibot was developed in 2015 to steal information from a variety of applications. Despite the age, this malware is still rather popular among cybercriminals.

Type
Stealer
Origin
ex-USSR territory
First seen
3 May, 2015
Last seen
31 March, 2020
Also known as
Loki
LokiPWS
Global rank
3
Week rank
6
Month rank
2
IOCs
10023

What is Lokibot malware?

Lokibot, also known as Loki-bot or Loki bot, is an information stealer malware that collects data from most widely used web browsers, FTP, email clients and over a hundred software tools installed on the infected machine. It was developed in one of the ex-USSR countries.

It was discovered for the first time on May 3rd, 2015 from a sale announcement made by the creator and the malware is still active to this day.

General description of Lokibot

Initially created and sold by a hacker known as "lokistov," or "Carter,", the first versions of Lokibot spyware used to cost up to $400. However, soon after almost identical malware started appearing on hacker forums, available for as little as $80 from a number of sellers. As it is thought, “lokistov” himself was hacked, and the source code of the virus was leaked, allowing others to make and sell extremely similar malware.

Curiously, a researcher subsequently found out that the first version of the virus got patched by someone without accessing the source code, which gave the hacker community the ability to set a series of individual domains used to receive the retrieved data.

Even though several versions of the virus exist today, it was found that all of them are actually modifications of the original malware. Interestingly, the server to which Lokibot stealer sends data is unique for every particular malware sample.

Lokibot malware analysis

A video displaying the simulation of the contamination process created by the ANY.RUN interactive malware hunting service provides the perfect opportunity to see how the contamination process is unfolding on an infected machine. As shown in the simulation, Lokibot needs email attachments, such as a Microsoft Office file or an archive file to be opened in order to enter an active phase.

process graph of lokibot stealer execution Figure 1: Process graph generated by the ANY.RUN malware hunting service

The malware life cycle can be broken down to the following stages:

  • Contamination. The victim downloads an infected archive or a Microsoft Office file which eventually downloads the malware;
  • Being packed initially, the Keylogger unpacks itself and begins the execution of the main payload;
  • The virus creates unique loop-functions for each application that it is targeting and saves retrieved data into a buffer;
  • Then, a registry key is modified and the Trojan is copied specifically into a folder with a specific name unique name under %APPDATA% folder. This allows the virus to establish persistence. MachineGuid MD5 is used for the name generation and the name can also be used as a Mutex as well as bot-id. As the last action of this step, the virus generates a registry key that points to the file it copied before to the specific folder inside the %APPDATA% folder;
  • Then, depending if the current user is privileged or not the virus sets persistence either under HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE or KEY_CURRENT_USER;
  • Next, general system information is sent to the C&C server;
  • For persistence, the keylogger then applies triple DES encryption to the URL and the registry key;
  • After this the virus starts waiting for commands from C&C, creating a new thread to detect the C&C response.

How to avoid infection by Lokibot?

Since Lokibot spyware requires macros to be activated to infect the system, attackers will do everything in their power to make the victim enable them. Thus keeping macros turned off is the best bet to stay protected from the Trojan. Particularly, extra caution should be exhibited when a document downloaded from a suspicious source or an unknown email address prompts to enable macros.

In addition, having antivirus software from trusted developers and always keeping it updated is a good way to decrease the probability of becoming the malware’s victim. Another good common practice is to be extremely mindful when opening attachments or clicking links in emails from unidentified sources.

Distribution of Lokibot

Lokibot stealer is distributed mostly via mail-spam campaigns, prompting the user to download an infected file that is attached. Particularly, the three most commonly used types of files are Microsoft Office documents configured to begin the download and installation processes of the malware, archive files that contain a Loki-Bot executable or ISO files, also containing a Loki-Bot executable.

Lokibot execution process

Interactive sandbox simulation conducted on the ANY.RUN malware hunting service allows us to take a closer look at how the execution process of Lokibot unfolds in a case when a contaminated Microsoft Office file is the infection source.

  • The simulation starts with opening a Microsoft Office file. Immediately, WINWORD.EXE is executed with enable macros.
  • Then, through the exploitation of the CVE-2017-11882 vulnerability, Microsoft Office Equation Editor proceeds to download a malicious executable file;
  • Finally, a malicious executable file runs itself and then proceeds to steal the personal data and connect to the C&C server.

process tree of a lokibot stealer execution Figure 2: Illustrates the execution processes of Lokibot as shown by ANY.RUN simulation

a text report of a lokibot analysis Figure 3: A text report created by ANY.RUN

The virus generates multiple artifacts during its execution process. Particularly, four types of files can be simultaneously stored in the secret %APPDATA% directory at any point in time. Those files can have a “.exe,” “.lck,” “.hdb” or a “.kdb.” extensions and each file type is used for a specific purpose:

  • .exe files contain an executable copy of the Trojan that triggers when a user logs into an account,
  • .lck files are generated in order to prevent resource conflicts when either Windows Credentials or Keylogging are decrypted,
  • .hdb files are used to store the hashes of all data samples already transmitted to the C&C server
  • .kdb files are in turn used to hold information about the data that is yet to be sent to the server

The keylogger uses the following algorithm to name the files:

  1. First, Lokibot takes the value of MachineGuid from the registry branch HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE \ SOFTWARE \ Microsoft \ Cryptography . In the case of our simulation, it was set to dc5131b5-5fbc-4f85-b1ed-28d4392080ca.

lokibot mutex creation GUID registry

  1. Then, the virus uses the MD5 algorithm to calculate the hash sum of the MachineGuid which in our case ended up being c83ba0aa282a966263dda560052b3caf.

lokibot mutex creation md5

  1. Finally, characters from the 8th to the 13th of the resulting hash amount are used as the name of the subdirectory, and the characters from the 13th to the 18th are used as the name of the files.

lokibot mutex creation

Communication with C&C

To communicate with the C&C server, the patched version of the virus which is also the most widely spread strain sends a “ckav.ru” string. Interestingly, the sent data is also is a substring of “fuckav.ru”.

How to detect Lokibot using ANY.RUN?

Among other things you can detect either it is Lokibot in front of you or not by looking inside sending packets - there's always text "ckav.ru" inside them. Just click on the sent packet in "HTTP REQUESTS" tab and take a look inside a packet.

lokibot network stream Figure 4: Lokibot network stream

Conclusion

Not lastly due to the fact that the first version of the malware was leaked and cloned, eventually becoming available for a significantly cheaper price than the original, Lokibot spyware became a widely spread malware that is continuing to appear in several mail-spam campaigns. In fact, the virus has become so popular that it’s set-up explanation videos are publically available on YouTube.

Fortunately, modern malware hunting tools like ANY.RUN provides the ability to examine the malware behavior in detail and establish solid protection against the hazard.

IOCs

IP addresses
204.11.56.48
185.53.179.29
77.72.0.138
192.185.129.96
192.169.69.25
31.170.160.61
162.213.253.111
194.87.238.60
192.3.202.210
72.52.179.174
209.99.40.222
103.74.123.3
104.24.124.73
35.246.219.215
93.157.63.185
51.254.93.74
50.31.174.86
54.38.141.142
217.29.57.181
208.115.234.234
Hashes
0dce71ce0e840022044127bedc710369f032a61e6cb7b237f2129c6ae08be26b
bf7fca2f42df4d4c617ee4ab82f3b2731afde49afc5da9579910ae6776ffdef1
a9a7e47f8ba5a08a5ff3978c8a6ee41606b6863306c5574d1be36d9c310591dd
21d3541c8455fe0d04d8a651963e9db0ffe27ba7bc13fcb357ccdab800076f56
05231e04906fb6fb889e6866cef5b3d2b7356ce8020f2a0ebb116333be4da347
f7f324441dd4662cadf1c509e69f8edde3f0acfed9d026c4becd1454e5000290
dad70d7db1082681552743922617484833de9ad95053f13eff5d2f97fead8f83
a86d15d57c42a712a89771bdd26c15e64cb5c4563f6506453b636bcfdada3366
8f117f589e7cfb5779abb0d454e1797bd1d7279efafd9cb068a4848a7e1571f0
1aabd3f9de030306ab181a600181548659aaab2b5ef6dfa2e4c7d85c3e2ed3a4
bed06510d878aedc81671ebf83fb2dd246f88de58514124d166e0831b4d9c4d0
a70ff26de7e920bc32a9d1b3f58cfddb47487cce2f67b14578f5071a02163e36
0f912a78e82cb13412f3190ef9603b8aa80cb32fa4c56faa72300de2bd3070db
ffd0108d38934f04c687b90685677d8e4273cf283bf1fff296485aa58a09416c
f8e041bed93783bbd5966bfba6273fe7183464035ea54fe1d59ff85a679b3e3e
a68ecce02b94316742071ce77cbcfb19f582eddf610c70ddf02112022117a22f
f76d5f6cbcfe6868c2794366be83cd30723e592e66513028096322cb8c2adde0
0327ddc89cfc9310f3a83cf6e14068733f8a8b2d0a5a4e723412865a0c7fc952
eea70ed7cf51e6acff6d3ab4fbee721abcf8ec8891496cf4f3c63ccd5b28cdd0
f7a745dc3590097375a858059f25718b199944fb1509fd9a42305d2e9da9e876
Domains
oththukaruva.com
parkingcrew.net
musk-giveaway.com
epsondriversforwindows.com
kuriero.pro
www.tiltmediaproductions.com
online-sale24.com
www.studiofourteen40.com
www.operationsbasednavigation.com
coreupdate.msoftupdates.com
cthree.msoftupdates.com
ctwo.msoftupdates.com
cone.msoftupdates.com
89gospel.com
bidroll.com
my.gobiox.com
tangotangocash.com
update.7h4uk.com
majul.com
elx01.knas.systems

HAVE A LOOK AT

Adwind screenshot
Adwind
adwind trojan
Adwind RAT, sometimes also called Unrecom, Sockrat, Frutas, jRat and JSocket is a Malware As A Service Remote Access Trojan that attackers can use to collect information from infected machines. It was one of the most popular RATs in the market in 2015.
Read More
Agent Tesla screenshot
Agent Tesla
agenttesla trojan rat stealer
Agent Tesla is spyware that collects information about the actions of its victims by recording keystrokes and user interactions. It is falsely marketed as a legitimate software on the dedicated website where this malware is sold.
Read More
Ave Maria screenshot
Ave Maria
avemaria stealer trojan rat
Ave Maria malware is a Remote Access Trojan that is also called WARZONE RAT. Hackers use it to control PCs of their victims remotely and steal information from infected PCs. For example, they can remotely activate the camera to take pictures of a victim and send them to a control server
Read More
Azorult screenshot
Azorult
azorult trojan rat
AZORult can steal banking information including passwords and credit card details as well as cryptocurrency. This constantly updated information stealer malware should not be taken lightly, as it continues to be an active threat.
Read More
Crimson RAT screenshot
Crimson RAT
crimson rat trojan
Crimson is a Remote Access Trojan — a malware that is used to take remote control of infected systems and steal data. This particular RAT is known to be used by a Pakistani founded cybergang that targets Indian military objects to steal sensitive information.
Read More
Danabot screenshot
Danabot
danabot trojan stealer
Danabot is an advanced banking Trojan malware that was designed to steal financial information from victims. Out of the Trojans in the wild this is one of the most advanced thanks to the modular design and a complex delivery method.
Read More