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IOCs

Glupteba is a loader with information-stealing and traffic routing functionality. It is designed primarily to install other viruses on infected PCs but can do much more than that. In addition, it is being constantly updated, making this virus one to watch out for.

Loader
Type
Unknown
Origin
1 January, 2011
First seen
20 April, 2024
Last seen

How to analyze Glupteba with ANY.RUN

Type
Unknown
Origin
1 January, 2011
First seen
20 April, 2024
Last seen

IOCs

IP addresses
187.134.87.130
39.109.117.57
185.82.216.64
104.18.22.210
92.204.137.153
31.210.21.63
193.56.146.55
91.245.227.131
135.181.90.114
95.211.241.82
151.106.13.122
193.106.191.101
151.106.0.201
185.136.158.83
195.154.222.27
5.9.108.164
18.193.123.112
176.9.120.229
78.46.86.122
62.112.8.173
Hashes
40a340087cc07780bfd61eab92e40f1223a6de88ec191bdedea0b91b16eca2aa
0a256371e8b1857b0f89f09b28ec0fed00a9a9d00b97c1ab148738b719d4e543
b82ceb8d028b0b73ba114d15822beb8d9757c7fc9e38ee40fbd3cd9bc511a51e
02334d5d6b2d9027eb714f1b783f01f28c6f83df44ffbba731dc043341d98d88
32da526e3087e3b8a3ee6682c43d1949f35632530b26be1d96fed653ae77cea8
1b51c71837114b9a24463da8601c28df669219e912159751a21814c8992611d2
34c2eed8a266d3b5221bb51f0b5a59712b01d0b339a1db8f626688cb8fb81030
a85984bddc8295fa00504447e5a2d358d5ed825df3bfda0696b7ef7da8497311
011d282c5218178aa76d28b3f61bb805023b14f084b9c6cd682e23a7a4d7677a
cb00ac1e12760a5fdd7ff797d1786e1536fd19a80322dbe1abe844f32331e3d7
1737a2dd0051c6a34f9525ba660e43bc4583b9b23df010be1007782ad30bb93f
aaa805d641dbe560cdf2186762ae7917ff89e68032b3361963b4c19b3db8c43f
2c9ef24345ea46e23c59bdb827e2e0e203b30f452ee33add7572cd68285ea592
988103f227a80a74be7836bd77d6dfd70c3bedff8c6f574e5818a5f6e52fe059
fdfc2511604401b46e49bd3870ac6001e4bd93a42c739df516db93efd7beabaa
1fafc153ada2b934b2104df7b5827afbb5d503a30b1c9b5729edd32408b5e8a6
8a305afa4246ffe762dde348af4c76e76ed518f399636fa17d25b5d2e24004c3
3c1dea00eebdec07e02137f5ffc2359c5765490691a141ed61b40ce133bde8a7
a1e23800a8653369dc5b70b72f20f2269f91197f9e1d208ee2d374e270426c36
670eac2327783972bc23bae4c397c606134eaa43c1f0c2f9cb5df3230d337dfb
Domains
clust-host.com
dg2sz7pxs7llf2t25fsbutlvvrjij4pmojugn75cmxnvoshmju6dzcad.onion
clust-world.com
cloudclust.com
clust-key.com
clustcloud.com
clust-hosting.com
clusthosting.com
financialtimesguru.com
clust-statistic.com
burnandfire5.com
statistic-hosting.com
clust-cloud.com
cloud-clust.com
clusthost.com
clustkey.com
clustinfo.com
clust-stats.com
clust-info.com
estrix.xyz
URLs
https://server1.realupdate.ru/api/poll
https://server1.realupdate.ru/api/restriction-us
https://server10.realupdate.ru/api/poll
https://server10.realupdate.ru/api/restriction-us
https://server14.realupdate.ru/api/poll
https://server14.realupdate.ru/api/signature/8e67f58837092385dcf01e8a2b4f5783
https://server14.realupdate.ru/api/restriction-us
https://server14.realupdate.ru/api/cdn
https://server13.realupdate.ru/api/restriction-us
https://server13.realupdate.ru/api/cdn
https://server7.thestatsfiles.ru/api/poll
https://server7.thestatsfiles.ru/api/signature/1bf850b4d9587c1017a75a47680584c4
https://server7.thestatsfiles.ru/api/signature/a4f5f1769e9bfd6c4510d7b73aa3332f
https://server7.thestatsfiles.ru/api/signature/dcb505dc2b9d8aac05f4ca0727f5eadb
https://server7.thestatsfiles.ru/api/restriction-us
https://server7.thestatsfiles.ru/api/signature/8e67f58837092385dcf01e8a2b4f5783
https://server7.thestatsfiles.ru/api/cdn
https://server12.realupdate.ru/api/signature/8e67f58837092385dcf01e8a2b4f5783
https://server12.realupdate.ru/api/restriction-us
https://server12.realupdate.ru/api/cdn
Last Seen at
Last Seen at

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What is Glupteba malware?

Glupteba is a dropper — it is commonly used to install other malware samples on infected machines. Although it was initially thought that Glupteba was developed to be a part of a malicious campaign codenamed Operation Windigo, researchers now believe that it is independent malware.

Although Glupteba trojan classifies as a dropper it has some additional dangerous functions. For example, it has the ability to steal information from infected systems. In addition, it can download a component that is able to control routers and relay traffic.

Furthermore, it seems that this malware is under active development and creators employ dangerous and rarely used techniques to keep their creation active despite various malware removal programs. The reason is probably behind their presumable move to a pay-per-install distribution scheme which means that they must keep the malware relevant to profit from it.

General description of Glupteba dropper

Glupteba malware was first spotted in the wild in 2011 when it was distributed by TDL-4 bootkit among a series of other malware types. The virus went quite for a long time thanks to the malware removal tools until it surfaced again three years later. This time Glupteba was seen in Operation Windigo.

In addition, researchers discovered that command and control domains of Glupteba dropper were hosted on the same machines that powered parts of the Operation Windigo infrastructure. However, the exact connection between Glupteba and Windigo is unclear.

Until recently we didn’t hear much about Glupteba trojan anymore before it surfaced again carrying new, dangerous functionally.

Today, apart from the main dropper functionality Glupteba malware comes with two components: the browsers stealer component and the router exploiter.

The browser stealer comes in two versions that target Chrome, Opera, and the Yandex browser. The malware is capable of stealing cookies and browser history as well as private login credentials.

Then there is the router exploiter component. It exploits the CVE-2018-14847 vulnerability to take control of the routers. This allows attackers to turn compromised routers into SOCKS proxies, which redirect traffic from compromised machines. Thus, infected routers can become relay points for spam distribution and more.

For instance, there is a theory that some of the relayed traffic is part of an attack on Instagram, though it is impossible to tell for sure due to the HTTP encryption.

Malware analysis of Glupteba

The video generated by the ANY.RUN interactive malware hunting service shows the execution process of Glupteba. You can also analyze other malicious objects like Ave Maria and Smoke Loader.

process graph of the glupteba execution Figure 1: This graph generated by the ANY.RUN malware hunting service shows processes started by Glupteba Trojan

text report of the glupteba analysis Figure 2: A customizable text report created by ANY.RUN

Glupteba trojan execution process

After Glupteba makes its way into the system it's starts CMD.exe process to run CompMgmtLauncher.exe ("Computer Management Snapin Launcher"). The malware uses CompMgmtLauncher.exe to bypass UAC and run itself with administrative privileges. After that, it typically adds itself to autorun in the registry, renames an executable file and copies it to Windows subdirectories. Glupteba also checks the system for anti-malware solutions, adds firewall rules and defender exclusions. In addition to the above, this malware also adds itself to Schedule Tasks to persistence in the infected system. Throughout its lifecycle, Glupteba exchanges packets with the C2 server and has the ability to download other malware.

Glupteba C&C communication

Glupteba has a rather unique trick up its sleeve that involves no other than the Bitcoin blockchain. It can use transactions in the Bitcoin network to receive C&C domains. This function is triggered on schedule or by demand if there is a need.

It enables the attackers to pass new C&C domains to the malware, allowing it to restore operation by reconnecting to a new domain if something happens to the old one.

Glupteba malware distribution

It should be noted that Glupteba has a very wide distribution range. Since 2017 it has been spotted in 180 countries, though almost one-third of the attacks were concentrated in Ukraine, Russia, and Turkey.

In the past, the malware was distributed using the infrastructure provided by Windigo’s, however, currently, it is using its own botnet and employes CsdiMonetize adware. The latter downloads another dropper which, in turn, installs the trojan itself.

How to detect Glupteba using ANY.RUN?

Since Glupteba adds records into the registry, analysts can detect it by looking at registry keys. To do so, choose the process by clicking on it in the process tree of the task then click on the "More info" button. In "Advanced details of process" window switch to the "Registry changes" tab and take a closer look. If the analyzed sample writes a key with the name "UUID" into the key HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\TestApp, you are dealing with Glupteba and it's time to get the malware removal program ready.

how to detect glupteba Figure 3: Changes Glupteba made in the registry

Conclusion

Glupteba is proving to be a rather dangerous malware that researchers and cybersecurity specialists should not take lightly. Besides its ability to install other malware samples on infected machines, the malware is capable of stealing information from web browser applications. It can also download a component that reroutes traffic by taking control of web-routers.

We also know that this malware uses unique techniques when it comes to C&C communication. And if that was not enough, evidence suggests that it is in active development and attackers seem to be adding more potentially destructive features.

ANY.RUN has prepared a selection of advanced tools that allow to dissect and study a sample of Glupteba in an interactive sandbox environment which gives the researcher an ability to pause the simulation and make corrections at any time. Hopefully, by studying this threat along with many others we will be able to medicate the consensus of future malicious attacks.

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