Glupteba

Glupteba is a loader with information-stealing and traffic routing functionality. It is designed primarily to install other viruses on infected PCs but can do much more than that. In addition, it is being constantly updated, making this virus one to watch out for.

Type
Loader
Origin
Unknown
First seen
1 January, 2011
Last seen
12 January, 2021
Global rank
34
Week rank
24
Month rank
39
IOCs
1031

What is Glupteba malware?

Glupteba is a dropper — it is commonly used to install other malware samples on infected machines. Although it was initially thought that Glupteba was developed to be a part of a malicious campaign codenamed Operation Windigo, researchers now believe that it an independent malware.

Although Glupteba Trojan classifies as a dropper it has some additional dangerous functions. For example, it has the ability to steal information from infected systems. In addition, it can download a component that is able to control routers and relay traffic.

Furthermore, it seems that this malware is under active development and creators employ dangerous and rarely used techniques to keep their creation active. The reason is probably behind their presumable move to a pay-per-install distribution scheme which means that they must keep the malware relevant to profit from it.

General description of Glupteba dropper

Glupteba was first spotted in the wild in 2011 when it was distributed by TDL-4 bootkit among a series of other malware types. The virus went quite for a long time until it surfaced again three years later. This time Glupteba was seen in Operation Windigo.

In addition, researchers discovered that command and control domains of Glupteba dropper were hosted on the same machines that powered parts of the Operation Windigo infrastructure. However, the exact connection between Glupteba and Windigo is unclear.

Until recently we didn’t hear much about Glupteba anymore before it surfaced again carrying new, dangerous functionally.

Today, apart from the main dropper functionality Glupteba Trojan comes with two components: the browsers stealer component and the router exploiter.

The browser stealer comes in two versions that target Chrome, Opera, and the Yandex browser. The malware is capable of stealing cookies and browser history as well as private login credentials.

Then there is the router exploiter component. It exploits the CVE-2018-14847 vulnerability to take control of the routers. This allows attackers to turn compromised routers into SOCKS proxies, which redirect traffic from compromised machines. Thus, infected routers can become relay points for spam distribution and more.

For instance, there is a theory that some of the relayed traffic is part of an attack on Instagram, though it is impossible to tell for sure due to the HTTP encryption.

Malware analysis of Glupteba

The video generated by the ANY.RUN interactive malware hunting service shows the execution process of Glupteba.

process graph of the glupteba execution Figure 1: This graph generated by the ANY.RUN malware hunting service shows processes started by Glupteba Trojan

text report of the glupteba analysis Figure 2: A customizable text report created by ANY.RUN

Glupteba Trojan Execution Process

After Glupteba makes its way into the system it's starts CMD.exe process to run CompMgmtLauncher.exe ("Computer Management Snapin Launcher"). The malware uses CompMgmtLauncher.exe to bypass UAC and run itself with administrative privileges. After that, it typically adds itself to autorun in the registry, renames an executable file and copies it to Windows subdirectories. Glupteba also checks the system for anti-malware solutions, adds firewall rules and defender exclusions. In addition to the above, this malware also adds itself to Schedule Tasks to persistence in the infected system. Throughout its lifecycle, Glupteba exchanges packets with the C2 server and has the ability to download other malware.

Glupteba C&C communication

Glupteba has a rather unique trick up its sleeve that involves no other than the Bitcoin blockchain. It can use transactions in the Bitcoin network to receive C&C domains. This function is triggered on schedule or by demand if there is a need.

It enables the attackers to pass new C&C domains to the malware, allowing it to restore operation by reconnecting to a new domain if something happens to the old one.

Glupteba distribution

It should be noted that Glupteba has a very wide distribution range. Since 2017 it has been spotted in 180 countries, though almost one-third of the attacks were concentrated in Ukraine, Russia, and Turkey.

In the past, the malware was distributed using the infrastructure provided by Windigo’s, however, currently, it is using its own botnet and employes CsdiMonetize adware. The latter downloads another dropper which, in turn, installs Glupteba itself.

How to detect Glupteba using ANY.RUN?

Since Glupteba adds records into the registry, analysts can detect it by looking at registry keys. To do so, choose the process by clicking on it in the process tree of the task then click on the "More info" button. In "Advanced details of process" window switch to the "Registry changes" tab and take a closer look. If the analyzed sample writes a key with the name "UUID" into the key HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\TestApp, you are dealing with Glupteba.

how to detect glupteba Figure 3: Changes Glupteba made in the registry

Conclusion

Glupteba is proving to be a rather dangerous malware that researchers and cybersecurity specialists should not take lightly. Besides its ability to install other malware samples on infected machines, the malware is capable of stealing information from web browser applications. It can also download a component that reroutes traffic by taking control of web-routers.

We also know that this malware uses unique techniques when it comes to C&C communication. And if that was not enough, evidence suggests that it is in active development and attackers seem to be adding more potentially destructive features.

ANY.RUN has prepared a selection of advanced tools that allow to dissect and study a sample of Glupteba in an interactive sandbox environment which gives the researcher an ability to pause the simulation and make corrections at any time. Hopefully, by studying this threat along with many others we will be able to medicate the consensus of future malicious attacks.

IOCs

IP addresses
162.217.99.134
192.168.100.151
208.100.26.245
192.168.100.137
172.64.163.32
192.168.100.196
192.168.100.184
192.168.100.131
192.168.100.120
192.168.100.25
192.168.100.144
192.168.100.182
172.64.131.22
172.64.130.22
192.168.100.49
104.31.133.11
192.168.100.44
192.168.100.85
104.24.96.206
192.168.100.238
Hashes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isns.net
htsmx.net
bount.com.tw
mjrcpas.com
kewlmail.com
majul.com
elx01.knas.systems
onlybacklink.com
songunceliptv.com
alireviews-cdn.fireapps.vn
www.nycnote.pw
gyh1lh20owj.ru
krupskaya.com
m-onetrading-jp.com
thuocnam.tk
ie8eamus.com
l33t.brand-clothes.net
atb-lit.com
ltcfpuctidqqqxxzpikz.com
server1.39slxu3bw.ru

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