Glupteba

Glupteba is a loader with information-stealing and traffic routing functionality. It is designed primarily to install other viruses on infected PCs but can do much more than that. In addition, it is being constantly updated, making this virus one to watch out for.

Type
Loader
Origin
Unknown
First seen
1 January, 2011
Last seen
22 September, 2020
Global rank
34
Week rank
20
Month rank
25
IOCs
772

What is Glupteba malware?

Glupteba is a dropper — it is commonly used to install other malware samples on infected machines. Although it was initially thought that Glupteba was developed to be a part of a malicious campaign codenamed Operation Windigo, researchers now believe that it an independent malware.

Although Glupteba Trojan classifies as a dropper it has some additional dangerous functions. For example, it has the ability to steal information from infected systems. In addition, it can download a component that is able to control routers and relay traffic.

Furthermore, it seems that this malware is under active development and creators employ dangerous and rarely used techniques to keep their creation active. The reason is probably behind their presumable move to a pay-per-install distribution scheme which means that they must keep the malware relevant to profit from it.

General description of Glupteba dropper

Glupteba was first spotted in the wild in 2011 when it was distributed by TDL-4 bootkit among a series of other malware types. The virus went quite for a long time until it surfaced again three years later. This time Glupteba was seen in Operation Windigo.

In addition, researchers discovered that command and control domains of Glupteba dropper were hosted on the same machines that powered parts of the Operation Windigo infrastructure. However, the exact connection between Glupteba and Windigo is unclear.

Until recently we didn’t hear much about Glupteba anymore before it surfaced again carrying new, dangerous functionally.

Today, apart from the main dropper functionality Glupteba Trojan comes with two components: the browsers stealer component and the router exploiter.

The browser stealer comes in two versions that target Chrome, Opera, and the Yandex browser. The malware is capable of stealing cookies and browser history as well as private login credentials.

Then there is the router exploiter component. It exploits the CVE-2018-14847 vulnerability to take control of the routers. This allows attackers to turn compromised routers into SOCKS proxies, which redirect traffic from compromised machines. Thus, infected routers can become relay points for spam distribution and more.

For instance, there is a theory that some of the relayed traffic is part of an attack on Instagram, though it is impossible to tell for sure due to the HTTP encryption.

Malware analysis of Glupteba

The video generated by the ANY.RUN interactive malware hunting service shows the execution process of Glupteba.

process graph of the glupteba execution Figure 1: This graph generated by the ANY.RUN malware hunting service shows processes started by Glupteba Trojan

text report of the glupteba analysis Figure 2: A customizable text report created by ANY.RUN

Glupteba Trojan Execution Process

After Glupteba makes its way into the system it's starts CMD.exe process to run CompMgmtLauncher.exe ("Computer Management Snapin Launcher"). The malware uses CompMgmtLauncher.exe to bypass UAC and run itself with administrative privileges. After that, it typically adds itself to autorun in the registry, renames an executable file and copies it to Windows subdirectories. Glupteba also checks the system for anti-malware solutions, adds firewall rules and defender exclusions. In addition to the above, this malware also adds itself to Schedule Tasks to persistence in the infected system. Throughout its lifecycle, Glupteba exchanges packets with the C2 server and has the ability to download other malware.

Glupteba C&C communication

Glupteba has a rather unique trick up its sleeve that involves no other than the Bitcoin blockchain. It can use transactions in the Bitcoin network to receive C&C domains. This function is triggered on schedule or by demand if there is a need.

It enables the attackers to pass new C&C domains to the malware, allowing it to restore operation by reconnecting to a new domain if something happens to the old one.

Glupteba distribution

It should be noted that Glupteba has a very wide distribution range. Since 2017 it has been spotted in 180 countries, though almost one-third of the attacks were concentrated in Ukraine, Russia, and Turkey.

In the past, the malware was distributed using the infrastructure provided by Windigo’s, however, currently, it is using its own botnet and employes CsdiMonetize adware. The latter downloads another dropper which, in turn, installs Glupteba itself.

How to detect Glupteba using ANY.RUN?

Since Glupteba adds records into the registry, analysts can detect it by looking at registry keys. To do so, choose the process by clicking on it in the process tree of the task then click on the "More info" button. In "Advanced details of process" window switch to the "Registry changes" tab and take a closer look. If the analyzed sample writes a key with the name "UUID" into the key HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\TestApp, you are dealing with Glupteba.

how to detect glupteba Figure 3: Changes Glupteba made in the registry

Conclusion

Glupteba is proving to be a rather dangerous malware that researchers and cybersecurity specialists should not take lightly. Besides its ability to install other malware samples on infected machines, the malware is capable of stealing information from web browser applications. It can also download a component that reroutes traffic by taking control of web-routers.

We also know that this malware uses unique techniques when it comes to C&C communication. And if that was not enough, evidence suggests that it is in active development and attackers seem to be adding more potentially destructive features.

ANY.RUN has prepared a selection of advanced tools that allow to dissect and study a sample of Glupteba in an interactive sandbox environment which gives the researcher an ability to pause the simulation and make corrections at any time. Hopefully, by studying this threat along with many others we will be able to medicate the consensus of future malicious attacks.

IOCs

IP addresses
192.168.100.182
192.168.100.34
192.168.100.6
192.168.100.64
192.168.100.203
192.168.100.23
192.168.100.199
192.168.100.93
192.168.100.219
192.168.100.108
192.168.100.238
192.168.100.131
192.168.100.240
192.168.100.107
192.168.100.70
192.168.100.196
104.31.133.11
104.31.132.11
192.168.100.155
192.168.100.44
Hashes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majul.com
elx01.knas.systems
alireviews-cdn.fireapps.vn
isns.net
ie8eamus.com
okonewacon.com
krupskaya.com
m-onetrading-jp.com
thuocnam.tk
weatherwidget.io
reorget.com
topswp.com
cdn.dcodes.net
ip2.adspy.mobi
interestourflash.info
whitecontroller.com
www.dcodes.net
www.dcodes.net
coft.france3cotedazur.fr
abulu.cf

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