Glupteba

Glupteba is a loader with information-stealing and traffic routing functionality. It is designed primarily to install other viruses on infected PCs but can do much more than that. In addition, it is being constantly updated, making this virus one to watch out for.

Type
Loader
Origin
Unknown
First seen
1 January, 2011
Last seen
2 August, 2021
Global rank
34
Week rank
24
Month rank
39
IOCs
3441

What is Glupteba malware?

Glupteba is a dropper — it is commonly used to install other malware samples on infected machines. Although it was initially thought that Glupteba was developed to be a part of a malicious campaign codenamed Operation Windigo, researchers now believe that it an independent malware.

Although Glupteba Trojan classifies as a dropper it has some additional dangerous functions. For example, it has the ability to steal information from infected systems. In addition, it can download a component that is able to control routers and relay traffic.

Furthermore, it seems that this malware is under active development and creators employ dangerous and rarely used techniques to keep their creation active. The reason is probably behind their presumable move to a pay-per-install distribution scheme which means that they must keep the malware relevant to profit from it.

General description of Glupteba dropper

Glupteba was first spotted in the wild in 2011 when it was distributed by TDL-4 bootkit among a series of other malware types. The virus went quite for a long time until it surfaced again three years later. This time Glupteba was seen in Operation Windigo.

In addition, researchers discovered that command and control domains of Glupteba dropper were hosted on the same machines that powered parts of the Operation Windigo infrastructure. However, the exact connection between Glupteba and Windigo is unclear.

Until recently we didn’t hear much about Glupteba anymore before it surfaced again carrying new, dangerous functionally.

Today, apart from the main dropper functionality Glupteba Trojan comes with two components: the browsers stealer component and the router exploiter.

The browser stealer comes in two versions that target Chrome, Opera, and the Yandex browser. The malware is capable of stealing cookies and browser history as well as private login credentials.

Then there is the router exploiter component. It exploits the CVE-2018-14847 vulnerability to take control of the routers. This allows attackers to turn compromised routers into SOCKS proxies, which redirect traffic from compromised machines. Thus, infected routers can become relay points for spam distribution and more.

For instance, there is a theory that some of the relayed traffic is part of an attack on Instagram, though it is impossible to tell for sure due to the HTTP encryption.

Malware analysis of Glupteba

The video generated by the ANY.RUN interactive malware hunting service shows the execution process of Glupteba.

process graph of the glupteba execution Figure 1: This graph generated by the ANY.RUN malware hunting service shows processes started by Glupteba Trojan

text report of the glupteba analysis Figure 2: A customizable text report created by ANY.RUN

Glupteba Trojan Execution Process

After Glupteba makes its way into the system it's starts CMD.exe process to run CompMgmtLauncher.exe ("Computer Management Snapin Launcher"). The malware uses CompMgmtLauncher.exe to bypass UAC and run itself with administrative privileges. After that, it typically adds itself to autorun in the registry, renames an executable file and copies it to Windows subdirectories. Glupteba also checks the system for anti-malware solutions, adds firewall rules and defender exclusions. In addition to the above, this malware also adds itself to Schedule Tasks to persistence in the infected system. Throughout its lifecycle, Glupteba exchanges packets with the C2 server and has the ability to download other malware.

Glupteba C&C communication

Glupteba has a rather unique trick up its sleeve that involves no other than the Bitcoin blockchain. It can use transactions in the Bitcoin network to receive C&C domains. This function is triggered on schedule or by demand if there is a need.

It enables the attackers to pass new C&C domains to the malware, allowing it to restore operation by reconnecting to a new domain if something happens to the old one.

Glupteba distribution

It should be noted that Glupteba has a very wide distribution range. Since 2017 it has been spotted in 180 countries, though almost one-third of the attacks were concentrated in Ukraine, Russia, and Turkey.

In the past, the malware was distributed using the infrastructure provided by Windigo’s, however, currently, it is using its own botnet and employes CsdiMonetize adware. The latter downloads another dropper which, in turn, installs Glupteba itself.

How to detect Glupteba using ANY.RUN?

Since Glupteba adds records into the registry, analysts can detect it by looking at registry keys. To do so, choose the process by clicking on it in the process tree of the task then click on the "More info" button. In "Advanced details of process" window switch to the "Registry changes" tab and take a closer look. If the analyzed sample writes a key with the name "UUID" into the key HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\TestApp, you are dealing with Glupteba.

how to detect glupteba Figure 3: Changes Glupteba made in the registry

Conclusion

Glupteba is proving to be a rather dangerous malware that researchers and cybersecurity specialists should not take lightly. Besides its ability to install other malware samples on infected machines, the malware is capable of stealing information from web browser applications. It can also download a component that reroutes traffic by taking control of web-routers.

We also know that this malware uses unique techniques when it comes to C&C communication. And if that was not enough, evidence suggests that it is in active development and attackers seem to be adding more potentially destructive features.

ANY.RUN has prepared a selection of advanced tools that allow to dissect and study a sample of Glupteba in an interactive sandbox environment which gives the researcher an ability to pause the simulation and make corrections at any time. Hopefully, by studying this threat along with many others we will be able to medicate the consensus of future malicious attacks.

IOCs

IP addresses
208.100.26.245
192.168.100.69
192.168.100.197
192.168.100.117
192.168.100.105
192.168.100.51
192.168.100.140
63.251.106.25
63.251.106.25
192.168.100.153
192.168.100.162
192.168.100.169
192.168.100.93
192.168.100.151
192.168.100.196
192.168.100.124
192.168.100.85
192.168.100.114
192.168.100.230
192.168.100.42
Hashes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www.sandzconsult.com
www.genesispure.kr
xrNsGxREeZNXdNtLyIUStGJxq.xrNsGxREeZNXdNtLyIUStGJxq
gbauth.online
unitedvtc.tk
surfing-navigator.com
www.apkom.ml
olksmadnbdj.com
ugghjjgddd.com
www.strikinglycdn.com
icycyberchef.com
www.comrnbank.com.au
www.t4rut.iooexcl.com
www.7457035539.daresni.net
www.bez-diet.com
loufule.ru
www.congying1688.com
www.oqksibfggt65.mobi
www.alondralearning.com
www.seem-elsewhere.info

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