Glupteba

Glupteba is a loader with information-stealing and traffic routing functionality. It is designed primarily to install other viruses on infected PCs but can do much more than that. In addition, it is being constantly updated, making this virus one to watch out for.

Type
Loader
Origin
Unknown
First seen
1 January, 2011
Last seen
15 April, 2021
Global rank
34
Week rank
24
Month rank
39
IOCs
1085

What is Glupteba malware?

Glupteba is a dropper — it is commonly used to install other malware samples on infected machines. Although it was initially thought that Glupteba was developed to be a part of a malicious campaign codenamed Operation Windigo, researchers now believe that it an independent malware.

Although Glupteba Trojan classifies as a dropper it has some additional dangerous functions. For example, it has the ability to steal information from infected systems. In addition, it can download a component that is able to control routers and relay traffic.

Furthermore, it seems that this malware is under active development and creators employ dangerous and rarely used techniques to keep their creation active. The reason is probably behind their presumable move to a pay-per-install distribution scheme which means that they must keep the malware relevant to profit from it.

General description of Glupteba dropper

Glupteba was first spotted in the wild in 2011 when it was distributed by TDL-4 bootkit among a series of other malware types. The virus went quite for a long time until it surfaced again three years later. This time Glupteba was seen in Operation Windigo.

In addition, researchers discovered that command and control domains of Glupteba dropper were hosted on the same machines that powered parts of the Operation Windigo infrastructure. However, the exact connection between Glupteba and Windigo is unclear.

Until recently we didn’t hear much about Glupteba anymore before it surfaced again carrying new, dangerous functionally.

Today, apart from the main dropper functionality Glupteba Trojan comes with two components: the browsers stealer component and the router exploiter.

The browser stealer comes in two versions that target Chrome, Opera, and the Yandex browser. The malware is capable of stealing cookies and browser history as well as private login credentials.

Then there is the router exploiter component. It exploits the CVE-2018-14847 vulnerability to take control of the routers. This allows attackers to turn compromised routers into SOCKS proxies, which redirect traffic from compromised machines. Thus, infected routers can become relay points for spam distribution and more.

For instance, there is a theory that some of the relayed traffic is part of an attack on Instagram, though it is impossible to tell for sure due to the HTTP encryption.

Malware analysis of Glupteba

The video generated by the ANY.RUN interactive malware hunting service shows the execution process of Glupteba.

process graph of the glupteba execution Figure 1: This graph generated by the ANY.RUN malware hunting service shows processes started by Glupteba Trojan

text report of the glupteba analysis Figure 2: A customizable text report created by ANY.RUN

Glupteba Trojan Execution Process

After Glupteba makes its way into the system it's starts CMD.exe process to run CompMgmtLauncher.exe ("Computer Management Snapin Launcher"). The malware uses CompMgmtLauncher.exe to bypass UAC and run itself with administrative privileges. After that, it typically adds itself to autorun in the registry, renames an executable file and copies it to Windows subdirectories. Glupteba also checks the system for anti-malware solutions, adds firewall rules and defender exclusions. In addition to the above, this malware also adds itself to Schedule Tasks to persistence in the infected system. Throughout its lifecycle, Glupteba exchanges packets with the C2 server and has the ability to download other malware.

Glupteba C&C communication

Glupteba has a rather unique trick up its sleeve that involves no other than the Bitcoin blockchain. It can use transactions in the Bitcoin network to receive C&C domains. This function is triggered on schedule or by demand if there is a need.

It enables the attackers to pass new C&C domains to the malware, allowing it to restore operation by reconnecting to a new domain if something happens to the old one.

Glupteba distribution

It should be noted that Glupteba has a very wide distribution range. Since 2017 it has been spotted in 180 countries, though almost one-third of the attacks were concentrated in Ukraine, Russia, and Turkey.

In the past, the malware was distributed using the infrastructure provided by Windigo’s, however, currently, it is using its own botnet and employes CsdiMonetize adware. The latter downloads another dropper which, in turn, installs Glupteba itself.

How to detect Glupteba using ANY.RUN?

Since Glupteba adds records into the registry, analysts can detect it by looking at registry keys. To do so, choose the process by clicking on it in the process tree of the task then click on the "More info" button. In "Advanced details of process" window switch to the "Registry changes" tab and take a closer look. If the analyzed sample writes a key with the name "UUID" into the key HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\TestApp, you are dealing with Glupteba.

how to detect glupteba Figure 3: Changes Glupteba made in the registry

Conclusion

Glupteba is proving to be a rather dangerous malware that researchers and cybersecurity specialists should not take lightly. Besides its ability to install other malware samples on infected machines, the malware is capable of stealing information from web browser applications. It can also download a component that reroutes traffic by taking control of web-routers.

We also know that this malware uses unique techniques when it comes to C&C communication. And if that was not enough, evidence suggests that it is in active development and attackers seem to be adding more potentially destructive features.

ANY.RUN has prepared a selection of advanced tools that allow to dissect and study a sample of Glupteba in an interactive sandbox environment which gives the researcher an ability to pause the simulation and make corrections at any time. Hopefully, by studying this threat along with many others we will be able to medicate the consensus of future malicious attacks.

IOCs

IP addresses
192.168.100.89
192.168.100.28
192.168.100.64
192.168.100.219
192.168.100.220
192.168.100.34
192.168.100.116
192.168.100.93
192.168.100.202
192.168.100.162
192.168.100.163
192.168.100.238
192.168.100.107
192.168.100.151
192.168.100.203
208.100.26.245
192.168.100.222
192.168.100.49
192.168.100.144
192.168.100.85
Hashes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majul.com
songunceliptv.com
onlybacklink.com
elx01.knas.systems
server5.sndvoices.com
ddos.dnsnb8.net
isns.net
l33t.brand-clothes.net
atb-lit.com
ltcfpuctidqqqxxzpikz.com
krupskaya.com
m-onetrading-jp.com
thuocnam.tk
ultimate-discounter.org
fotamene.com
sndvoices.com
server15.sndvoices.com
server7.sndvoices.com
server10.sndvoices.com
server4.sndvoices.com

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