Glupteba

Glupteba is a loader with information-stealing and traffic routing functionality. It is designed primarily to install other viruses on infected PCs but can do much more than that. In addition, it is being constantly updated, making this virus one to watch out for.

Type
Loader
Origin
Unknown
First seen
1 January, 2011
Last seen
4 October, 2022
Global rank
40
Week rank
34
Month rank
36
IOCs
9666

What is Glupteba malware?

Glupteba is a dropper — it is commonly used to install other malware samples on infected machines. Although it was initially thought that Glupteba was developed to be a part of a malicious campaign codenamed Operation Windigo, researchers now believe that it is independent malware.

Although Glupteba trojan classifies as a dropper it has some additional dangerous functions. For example, it has the ability to steal information from infected systems. In addition, it can download a component that is able to control routers and relay traffic.

Furthermore, it seems that this malware is under active development and creators employ dangerous and rarely used techniques to keep their creation active despite various malware removal programs. The reason is probably behind their presumable move to a pay-per-install distribution scheme which means that they must keep the malware relevant to profit from it.

General description of Glupteba dropper

Glupteba malware was first spotted in the wild in 2011 when it was distributed by TDL-4 bootkit among a series of other malware types. The virus went quite for a long time thanks to the malware removal tools until it surfaced again three years later. This time Glupteba was seen in Operation Windigo.

In addition, researchers discovered that command and control domains of Glupteba dropper were hosted on the same machines that powered parts of the Operation Windigo infrastructure. However, the exact connection between Glupteba and Windigo is unclear.

Until recently we didn’t hear much about Glupteba trojan anymore before it surfaced again carrying new, dangerous functionally.

Today, apart from the main dropper functionality Glupteba malware comes with two components: the browsers stealer component and the router exploiter.

The browser stealer comes in two versions that target Chrome, Opera, and the Yandex browser. The malware is capable of stealing cookies and browser history as well as private login credentials.

Then there is the router exploiter component. It exploits the CVE-2018-14847 vulnerability to take control of the routers. This allows attackers to turn compromised routers into SOCKS proxies, which redirect traffic from compromised machines. Thus, infected routers can become relay points for spam distribution and more.

For instance, there is a theory that some of the relayed traffic is part of an attack on Instagram, though it is impossible to tell for sure due to the HTTP encryption.

Malware analysis of Glupteba

The video generated by the ANY.RUN interactive malware hunting service shows the execution process of Glupteba. You can also analyze other malicious objects like Ave Maria and Smoke Loader.

process graph of the glupteba execution Figure 1: This graph generated by the ANY.RUN malware hunting service shows processes started by Glupteba Trojan

text report of the glupteba analysis Figure 2: A customizable text report created by ANY.RUN

Glupteba trojan execution process

After Glupteba makes its way into the system it's starts CMD.exe process to run CompMgmtLauncher.exe ("Computer Management Snapin Launcher"). The malware uses CompMgmtLauncher.exe to bypass UAC and run itself with administrative privileges. After that, it typically adds itself to autorun in the registry, renames an executable file and copies it to Windows subdirectories. Glupteba also checks the system for anti-malware solutions, adds firewall rules and defender exclusions. In addition to the above, this malware also adds itself to Schedule Tasks to persistence in the infected system. Throughout its lifecycle, Glupteba exchanges packets with the C2 server and has the ability to download other malware.

Glupteba C&C communication

Glupteba has a rather unique trick up its sleeve that involves no other than the Bitcoin blockchain. It can use transactions in the Bitcoin network to receive C&C domains. This function is triggered on schedule or by demand if there is a need.

It enables the attackers to pass new C&C domains to the malware, allowing it to restore operation by reconnecting to a new domain if something happens to the old one.

Glupteba malware distribution

It should be noted that Glupteba has a very wide distribution range. Since 2017 it has been spotted in 180 countries, though almost one-third of the attacks were concentrated in Ukraine, Russia, and Turkey.

In the past, the malware was distributed using the infrastructure provided by Windigo’s, however, currently, it is using its own botnet and employes CsdiMonetize adware. The latter downloads another dropper which, in turn, installs the trojan itself.

How to detect Glupteba using ANY.RUN?

Since Glupteba adds records into the registry, analysts can detect it by looking at registry keys. To do so, choose the process by clicking on it in the process tree of the task then click on the "More info" button. In "Advanced details of process" window switch to the "Registry changes" tab and take a closer look. If the analyzed sample writes a key with the name "UUID" into the key HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\TestApp, you are dealing with Glupteba and it's time to get the malware removal program ready.

how to detect glupteba Figure 3: Changes Glupteba made in the registry

Conclusion

Glupteba is proving to be a rather dangerous malware that researchers and cybersecurity specialists should not take lightly. Besides its ability to install other malware samples on infected machines, the malware is capable of stealing information from web browser applications. It can also download a component that reroutes traffic by taking control of web-routers.

We also know that this malware uses unique techniques when it comes to C&C communication. And if that was not enough, evidence suggests that it is in active development and attackers seem to be adding more potentially destructive features.

ANY.RUN has prepared a selection of advanced tools that allow to dissect and study a sample of Glupteba in an interactive sandbox environment which gives the researcher an ability to pause the simulation and make corrections at any time. Hopefully, by studying this threat along with many others we will be able to medicate the consensus of future malicious attacks.

IOCs

IP addresses
192.168.100.124
192.168.100.6
192.168.100.202
192.168.100.23
192.168.100.156
192.168.100.71
192.168.100.3
172.67.146.242
192.168.100.39
192.168.100.199
172.67.137.101
172.64.130.22
104.18.23.210
35.205.61.67
192.168.100.140
192.168.100.180
192.168.100.182
192.168.100.184
208.100.26.245
192.168.100.131
Hashes
1413d78e9e5a2d7c99ab112c5d5f5b5d104cc6e0877bc60581bcef25990c2ff5
6a6595880ce130a02d8edbba4da0a2a94dba7928a6185053fcbf70d8ec54ef92
a3c8240b89ec35d5fd17facf5c7ba33247997274c96bc56b67233f4ad392c518
0f58266dde76e2917bfe7a8ab6617a8d5603a4935a76b37f54c5dbaaa7c0e06c
5caae6f11abc0a10481f56f9e598f98332b6144e24bf6efa67b63becc7debd36
0907da6b0b550231c69e0d2926bf99e5a464fa9d6a6693ce94d68b1a3a2ee1bb
59fbf550f9edac6eabae2af8b50c760e9b496b96e68cb8b84d8c745d3bb9ec15
d45718639cc2ea44fa94d80ad765c251755eda022cd65d0cf3b56fa2c2325c21
4441c7d22ac8cbb9af38beac94273eca26fd3afc27aaace54605969612607365
3b5e3ac8086a5874d2bcdd8021066f68bb3e54517335c5c58e147f9474fbd5c8
7ebcfa350728f258d2df454a58ef1866c5ec430b575fd239518af3ec92c29984
ace15d620a4d8a32324351bd7405307873f7101f113a7e022ed9ec06ee1689b9
40a340087cc07780bfd61eab92e40f1223a6de88ec191bdedea0b91b16eca2aa
ff8eec3cc99b8084e2cb2d524a04893ea0b5272b4cd704accd498a28eed1dd99
baa23ac04887086b2e980be35ae480efbce89ea9c1f9b6515378e4575fa811e1
e4d21193698304f9fb040bacba4f86c47ab73ecc5d36f7c3b83d9b1c3afcb3c5
8064ae4ab1ea14b267a4e3163647ec44ca3a3d1e81729c202809df9e5cf279fc
ad47a0884f570f9298c54e7d6f7b0a133c214c07bf6e0dc22df445d3cb0fd7fd
a8d6808d55f6b2eff4d92bf3778e7a087a322a524eab54398280474f842d14ee
2744ffc4f33afa59b78e7663b3ef90c57598362f92cebd17f255597fe8b42664
Domains
majul.com
elx01.knas.systems
hnt.powzip.club
np.powzip.club
pnitw21w0ose5qnz0uqgalgejc.com
og4qfytsofrpxhoyofr0z1sr1h.com
jnbuiv5u4ts5r25w4pr4a1b4rh.com
dmpl4sztdhp24jqs5aqiyhz2tc.com
42yakuzrfxhdnum2k2r0kg1rva.com
2bmbcboqqyrkt5r4hrqcdpb4jh.com
jp1ntxyqg012tsatt4t21zbzkf.com
5cxspurxdnoord4rvnsawo4igg.com
2twb3clvmbm0jl4x3nruvgwv0a.com
wparxmpwzhpxnsovi5swqwqfid.Google.co.uk
gi4yincslyp201cah0ryg3rwcf.com
j15bayuqgefzbqwgzfsm0zadph.com
5oxt2wrvpyvw0i2e4ksg0curjf.com
nlhmnmetbykqa1lwu2qezuisye.com
12tjwgixyvtknlug05tmtsqjnc.com
tl3hmeduihd4xsyk1uqmcdijdb.com

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